Civil Air Search and Rescue Association - Manitoba

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Version 4.1
Copyright © 2006, P. Lutus.

Phonetic Alphabet (NATO)

Alpha Echo India Mike Quebec Uniform Yankee 0 Zero 4 Fower 8 Ait
Bravo Foxtrot Juliet November Romeo Victor Zulu 1 Wun 5 Fife 9 Niner
Charlie Golf Kilo Oscar Sierra Whiskey   2 Too 6 Six . Decimal
Delta Hotel Limo Papa Tango X-Ray   3 Tree 7 Seven . Stop



TAF KPIT 091730Z 091818 15005KT 5SM HZ FEW020 WS010/31022KT FM1930 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM +TSRA OVC008CB FM0100 27008KT 5SM SHRA BKN020 0VC040 PROB40 0407 1SM -RA BR FM1015 18005KT 6SM -SHRA OVC020 BECMG 1315 P6SM NSW SKC

METAR KPIT 091955Z COR 22015G25KT 3/4SM R28L/2600FT TSRA OVC010CB 18/16 A2992 RMK SLP045 T01820159

Forecast Explanation Report
TAF Message type: TAF-routine or TAF AMD-amended forecast, METAR-hourly, SPECI-special or TESTM-non-commissioned ASOS report METAR
KPIT ICAO location indicator KPIT
091730Z Issuance time: ALL times in UTC "Z", 2-digit date, 4-digit time 091955Z
091818 Valid period: 2-digit date, 2-digit beginning, 2-digit ending times
In U.S. METAR: CORrected ob; or AUTOmated ob for automated report with no human intervention; omitted when observer logs on COR
15005KT Wind: 3 digit true-north direction, nearest 10 degrees (or VaRiaBle); next 2-3 digits for speed and unit, KT (KMH or MPS); as needed, Gust and maximum speed; 00000KT for calm; for METAR, if direction varies 60 degrees or more, Variability appended, e.g. 180V260 22015G25KT
5SM Prevailing visibility: in U.S., Statute Miles & fractions; above 6 miles in TAF Plus6SM. (Or, 4-digit minimum visibility in meters and as required, lowest value with direction) 3/4SM
Runway Visual Range: R; 2-digit runway designator Left, Center, or Right as needed; "/"; Minus or Plus in U.S, 4-digit value, FeeT in U.S. (usually meters elsewhere); 4-digit value Varialbility 4-digit value (and tendency Down, Up or No change) R28L/2600FT
HZ Significant present, forecast and recent weather: see table (below) TSRA
FEW020 Cloud amount, height and type: SKy Clear 0/8, FEW >0/8-2/8, SCaTtered 3/8-4/8, BroKeN 5/8-7/8, OVerCast 8/8; 3-digit height in hundreds of ft; Towering CUmulus or CumulonimBus in METAR; in TAF, only CB. Vertical Visibility for obscured sky and height "VV004". More than 1 layer may be reported or forecast. In automated METAR reports only, CLeaR for "clear below 12,000 feet" OVC010CB
Temperature: degrees Celsius; first 2 digits, temperature "/" last 2 digits, dew-point temperature; Minus for below zero, e.g., M06 18/16
Altimeter setting: indicator and 4 digits; in U.S., A-inches and hundredths; (Q-hectoPascals, e.g. Q1013) A2992
WS010/31022KT In U.S. TAF, non-convective low-level (<=2,000 ft)Wind Shear; 3-digit height (hundreds of ft); "/", 3-digit wind direction and 2-3 digit wind speed above the indicated height, and unit, KT
In METAR, ReMarK indicator & remarks. For example:Sea-Level Pressure in hectoPascals & tenths, as shown: 1004.5 hPa; Temp/dew-point in tenths °C, as shown: temp 18.2°C, dew-point 15.9°C RMK SLP045 T01820159
FM1930 FroM and 2-digit hour and 2-digit minute beginning time: indicates significant change. Each FM starts on a new line, indented 5 spaces.
TEMPO 2022 TEMPOrary: changes expected for < 1 hour and in total, < half of 2-digit hour beginning and 2-digit hour ending time period
PROB40 0407 PROBability and 2-digit percent (30 or 40): probable condition during 2-digit hour beginning and 2-digit hour ending time period
BECMG 1315 BECoMinG: change expected during 2-digit hour beginning and 2-digit hour ending time period

Table of Significant Present, Forecast and Recent Weather - Grouped in categories and used in the order listed below; or as needed in TAF, No Significant Weather.

QUALIFIER Intensity or Proximity - Light "no sign" Moderate + Heavy VC Vicinity: but not at aerodrome; in U.S. METAR, between 5 and 10SM of the point(s) of observation; in U.S. TAF, 5 to 10SM from center of runway complex (elsewhere within 8000m) Descriptor MI Shallow BC Patches PR Partial TS Thunderstorm BL Blowing SH Showers DR Drifting FZ Freezing WEATHER PHENOMENA Precipitation DZ Drizzle RA Rain SN Snow SG Snow grains IC Ice crystals PL Ice pellets GR Hail GS Small hail/snow pellets UP Unknown precipitation in automated observations Obscuration BR Mist(>= 5/8SM) FG Fog(< 5/8SM) FU Smoke VA Volcanic Ash SA Sand HZ Haze PY Spray DU Widespread dust Other SQ Squall SS Sandstorm DS Duststorm PO Well developed FC Funnel cloud +FC tornado/waterspout dust/sand whirls
  • Explanations in parentheses "( )" indicate different worldwide practices.
  • Ceiling is not specified; defined as the lowest broken or overcast layer, or the vertical visibility.
  • NWS TAFs exclude turbulence, icing & temperature forecasts; NWS METARs exclude trend fcsts
  • Although not used in US, Ceiling And Visibility OK replaces visibility, weather and clouds if: visibility >=10km; no cloud below 5000 ft (1500m) or below the highest minimum sector altitude, whichever is greater and no CB; and no precipitation, TS, DS, SS, MIFG, DRDU, DRSA, or DRSN.